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虚拟主机技术分析介绍
时间:2013年08月10日 浏览量:字体:[ ]

虚拟主机技术是近两年来比较火爆的技术之一,已受到了越来越多的企业和媒体的关注,时间跨进了2006年,虚拟主机的热潮更是凶猛扑来。然而,从早期的概念的虚拟机出现,到现代x86虚拟机的流行,虚拟机技术已有几十年的历史了。
Virtual host technology over the past two years is one of the more popular technology, has been more and more enterprises and media attention, time stepped into the 2006, virtual host boom is even more fierce dog. However, emerging from the virtual machine concept, to the modern x86 virtual machine, virtual machine technology has decades of history.

早在上个世纪七十年代,IBM研究中心就在试验室里实现了其主机的映像,算是最原始的虚拟机了。40多年来,虚拟机一直在大型机和小型机中运行,无声无息。直到有一天,vmware将x86虚拟机带到了人们的面前。当我们在Linux中打开一个独立的虚拟机系统,看到了熟悉的视窗系统的蓝天和白云时,人们才真正意识到虚拟技术已发展到这样的一个阶段,而且是这样的诱人。
Early in the last century seventy's, the IBM research center in the laboratory to achieve its host image, is the most primitive of the virtual machine. Over the past 40 years, the virtual machine has been running on mainframes and minicomputers, soundless and stirless. Until one day, VMware will x86 virtual machine to the front of the people. When we open an independent virtual machine system in Linux, see the blue sky and white clouds with Windows system, people are really aware of the virtual technology has been developed to such a stage, but is so attractive.

目前,主流的x86虚拟机技术主要有这样几类:
At present, the x86 virtual machine technology mainstream mainly has such several kinds:

1、虚拟硬件模式(The virtual hardware models)

虚拟硬件模式是最传统的虚拟计算机模式。最早的虚拟硬件模式当然是源自IBM大型机的逻辑分区技术。这种技术的主要特点是,每一个虚拟机都是一台真正机器的完整拷贝,一个功能强大的主机能被分割成许多虚拟机。目前,这一虚拟模式被业界广泛借鉴,包括HP vPAR、VMware ESX Server和Xen在内的虚拟技术都是这样的工作原理。
The virtual hardware model is the most traditional virtual computer model. The virtual hardware models of the earliest is of course from the logical partitioning IBM mainframe. The main characteristic of this technique is, each virtual machine is a complete copy of the real machine, a powerful host can be divided into many virtual machine. At present, the virtual model has been the industry wide reference, virtual technology including HP vPAR, VMware ESX Server and Xen, is this principle.

虚拟硬件模型将计算机、存储和网络硬件间建立了一个抽象的虚拟化平台,使得所有的硬件被统一到一个虚拟化层中。这样,在这个平台的顶部创建的虚拟机具有同样的硬件结构,提供了更好的可迁移性。在这种模型中,每个用户都能在他们的虚拟机上运行程式、存储数据,甚至虚拟机崩溃也不会影响系统本身和其他的系统用户。所以,虚拟机模型不仅允许资源共享,而且实现了系统资源的保护。
The virtual hardware model of computer, storage and network hardware to establish an abstract virtual platform, so that all of the hardware was integrated into a virtualization layer. So, with the same hardware virtual machine on top of the platform, provide better mobility. In this model, to run the program, in their virtual machine to store data on each user, and even virtual machine breakdown will not affect the system itself and other users of the system. Therefore, the virtual machine model not only allows the sharing of resources, and realize the protection of system resources.

目前,此类虚拟机的典型产品有Vmware 的Workstation、GSX Server、ESX Server和Microsoft的Virtual PC、Virtual Server及Parallels Workstation等。
At present, the typical products of such virtual machine with Vmware Workstation, GSX Server, ESX Server and Microsoft Virtual PC, Virtual Server and Parallels Workstation.

以上的几种虚拟机软件都具有同样的特点:虚拟了Intel x86平台,能同时运行多个操作系统和应用程式。通过使用虚拟化层,提供了硬件级的虚拟,即虚拟机为运行于虚拟机的操作系统映像提供了一整套虚拟的Intel x86兼容硬件。这套虚拟硬件虚拟了真正服务器所拥有的全部设备:主板芯片、CPU、内存、SCSI和IDE磁盘设备、各种接口、显示和其他输入输出设备。并且,每个虚拟机都能被独立的封装到一个文件中,能实现虚拟机的灵活迁移。
Several virtual machine software above all have the same characteristics: virtual Intel X86 platform, can run multiple operating system and applications at the same time. By using the virtualization layer, provides the hardware level virtualization, provides a set of virtual Intel x86 compatible hardware virtual machine operating system running in a virtual machine image. All equipment is the set of virtual hardware virtual real servers have: the motherboard chip, CPU, memory, SCSI and IDE disk device, various interface, display and other input and output devices. And, each virtual machine can be independent of the package to a file, flexible migration can realize the virtual machine.

虚拟硬件虚拟技术有两个显著特点。第一,无论哪款产品,都能直接用系统处理器执行CPU指令,根本涉及不到虚拟层。第二,实现真正的分区隔离,每个分区只能占用一定的系统资源,包括磁盘I/O和网络带宽,并提高了系统的整体安全性。
The virtual hardware virtualization technology has two remarkable characteristics. First, no matter what product, can directly use the system processor executes the CPU instruction, simply do not refer to the virtual layer. Second, realize the true partition, each partition can only occupy certain system resources, including I/O disk and network bandwidth, and improve the overall safety of the system.

另外,高端的虚拟服务器产品能直接在硬件上运行虚拟机,而不必宿主操作系统。并且,通过相关的管理软件,能对每个虚拟机消耗的物理资源(网络带宽、磁盘I/O访问等)进行精确的控制。
In addition, high-end virtual server product can run directly on the hardware virtual machine, without the host operating system. And, through the relevant management software, the physical resources for each virtual machine consumption (network bandwidth, disk I/O access) for precise control.

对于VMware来说,该公司提供了从工作站版本到服务器版本,从迁移工具到管理工具的一系列产品,形成了一整套的解决方案。作为这个行业的领头羊,Vmware仍然具有比较大的技术优势。不过,该公司一个比较大的问题是价格问题。虽然,Vmware公司已推出了多个免费版本的产品,不过Vmware核心的企业级产品ESX Server不是免费的,而且价格不腓。然而,对于真正虚需要使用该产品的用户们来说,价格也许并不成问题。
For VMware, the company offers from workstation version to the server version, a series of products from the migration tool to management tools, has formed a set of solutions. As a leader in the industry, Vmware still has the comparative advantage of technology. However, a big problem is the price of the company. Although, Vmware has launched a free version of the product, but the Vmware core enterprise product ESX Server is not free, but the prices are not. However, for the true false need to use the product users, the price may not be a problem.

作为虚拟机技术领域的“第二号人物”,微软这几年的脚步有些慢。在推出了Virtual PC 2004之后,虽然推出了服务器级产品Virtual Server 2005。但Virtual Server 2005并没有什么过人的优势,功能上能和VMware GSX Server进行竞争,但迫于市场的压力,Virtual Server 2005已免费了。在这个虚拟化火爆的年代,相信微软也不会放过虚拟机这块肥肉的,让我们拭目以待吧。
As the technical field of virtual machine "number second," footsteps Microsoft in recent years some slow. After the launch of the Virtual PC 2004, despite the server level product Virtual Server 2005. But Virtual Server 2005 and no great advantage, function can compete with VMware GSX Server, but under pressure from the market, Virtual Server 2005 is free. In this virtual hot time, believe that Microsoft virtual machine will not miss this fat meat, let's rub one's eyes and wait.

Parallels是虚拟机技术领域的后起之秀,目前只有工作站级产品,不过其推出的MAC OS版本的产品已在网上炒的沸沸扬扬。Parallels Workstation具有和Vmware Workstation类似的界面和功能,虽然在技术上和Vmware Workstation相比并不占优势,但其最大的诱人之处在于极其低廉的价格。
Parallels is the field of virtual machine technology in the bright younger generation, at present only the workstation level products, but the launch of the MAC OS version of the product has been in the online fry raise a Babel of criticism of. Parallels Workstation and Vmware Workstation has a similar interface and function, although in the technology and the Vmware compared to Workstation is not dominant, but its greatest attraction is that the very low prices.

2、虚拟操作系统模式(Virtual operating system model)

虚拟操作系统模型是基于虚拟机运行的主机操作系统创建了一个虚拟层,用来虚拟机主机的操作系统。在这个虚拟层之上,能创建多个相互隔离的虚拟专用服务器(Virtual Private Server, VPS)。这些VPS能最大化的效率共享硬件、软件许可证及管理资源。对其用户和应用程式来讲,每一个VPS平台的运行和管理都和一台独立主机完全相同,因为每一个VPS均可独立进行重启并拥有自己的root访问权限、用户、IP地址、内存、过程、文件、应用程式、系统函数库及设置文件。对于运行着多个应用程式和拥有实际数据的产品服务器来说,虚拟操作系统的虚拟机能降低成本消耗和提高系统效率。
Virtual operating system model is the host operating system virtual machine running based on creating a virtual layer, operating system for virtual machine. In this virtual layer, can create multiple isolated virtual private servers (Virtual Private Server, VPS). These VPS can maximize the efficiency of sharing hardware, software licenses and management resources. The user and application, operation and management of each of the VPS platform and an independent host exactly the same, because each VPS can be carried out independently restarted and have their own root access, users, IP address, memory, process, file, application, system functions and settings file. For running multiple applications and has the actual data products servers, virtual function virtual operating system to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of the system.

虚拟操作系统模式虚拟化解决方案同样能够满足一系列的需求:安全隔离、计算机资源的灵活性和控制、硬件抽象操作及最终高效、强大的管理功能。每一个VPS 中的应用服务都是安全隔离的,且不受同一物理服务器上的其他VPS的影响。通过专用的文件系统,使得文件浏览对所有 VPS 用户来说就如常规服务器相同,但却无法被该服务器上的其他 VPS 用户看到。能够实时分配、监视、计算并控制资源级别,完成对CPU、内存、网络输入/输出、磁盘空间及其他网络资源的灵活管理。经过抽象的VPS具有相同的虚拟硬件结构,并能在任意连网的服务器之间透明迁移,而不产生所有宕机时间。
Virtual operating system pattern solutions can also meet a series of requirements: safety isolation, flexibility and control, computer hardware abstraction operation and high efficiency, strong management function. Application of each service in a VPS are safe, and not affected by other VPS servers on the same physical. Through the special file system, the file browser to all VPS users as conventional server, but not by other VPS users on the server to see. Real-time allocation, monitoring, calculation and control resource level, achieve flexible management of CPU, memory, input / output, disk space and other cyber source. After the abstraction of VPS with virtual hardware structure of the same, and between any networking server transparent migration, without generating all downtime.

操作系统虚拟化技术解决了在单个物理服务器上部署多个生产应用服务和存储服务器时所面临的挑战。在应用服务部署完成之后,他们被集中于同一种操作系统以便于管理和维护。操作系统虚拟化是针对生产应用和服务器的完美虚拟化解决方案,共享的操作系统提供了更为有效的服务器资源并且大大降低了处理损耗。通过操作系统虚拟化,上百个VPS能在单个的物理服务器上正常运行。
Operating system virtualization technology to solve the deployment of multiple faces production application service and storage server challenge on a single physical server. After deployed in the application service, they are concentrated in the same operating system to facilitate the management and maintenance. Virtual operating system is the perfect virtual production application and server solutions, operating system shared provides more effective server resources and greatly reduces the processing loss. Through the virtual operating system, hundreds of VPS can run on a single physical server.

但同时,这种集中于同一操作系统的特性也注定了该类虚拟机只能在同一台物理服务器上运行同一种虚拟的操作系统。也许,你将拥有一台同时运行100个windows或linux虚拟机的高性能服务器,但你不要想在这一服务器上同时运行虚拟的windows和linux系统。
But at the same time, this focus on the same operating system but also to the virtual machine can run only one virtual operating system on the same physical server. Maybe, you will have a high performance servers running Windows 100 or Linux virtual machine at the same time, but you don't want to run a virtual windows and Linux system in this server.

目前,swsoft的virtuozzo是这一领域的成熟产品。
At present, swsoft virtuozzo is a mature product in this field.

3、Xen

在不断增加的虚拟化技术列表中,Xen是近来最引人注目的技术之一。Xen 是在剑桥大学作为一个研究项目被研发出来的,他已在开源社区中得到了极大的推动。Xen 是一款半虚拟化(paravirtualizing)VMM(虚拟机监视器,Virtual Machine Monitor),这表示,为了调用系统管理程式,要有选择地修改操作系统,然而却不必修改操作系统上运行的应用程式。Xen是一种特别的虚拟硬件虚拟机,具有虚拟硬件虚拟机的大部分特性,其最大的不同点在于,Xen需要修改操作系统内核。
In the list of virtualization technology increasing, Xen is one of the most attract sb.'s attention recently technology. Xen is as a research project being developed at the University of Cambridge, he has been in the open source community greatly promote. Xen is a virtual (paravirtualizing) VMM (virtual machine monitor, Virtual Machine Monitor), it said, in order to call the system management program, to selectively modify the operating system, however, do not need to modify the application running on the operating system. Xen is a virtual hardware specific virtual machine, most has the characteristics of virtual hardware virtual machine, the biggest difference is that, Xen need to modify the operating system kernel.

目前,Xen只支持在Linux系统之上实现的Linux虚拟机。不过,其新的版本将支持Intel公司的硬件虚拟技术Intel-VT,这一个关键技术将能用以解决Xen在虚拟化视窗系统系统方面的困难。
At present, Xen is only supported in Linux virtual machine implementation based on the Linux system. However, the hardware virtualization technology Intel-VT the new version will support Intel company, which is a key technology will be used to solve Xen in the virtual window system difficulties.

VMware仍然是虚拟技术领域的领袖,在产品的成熟度方面他比XenSource公司还是有着非常明显的优势。不过非常多的业内人士认为,由于开源的原因,Xen的实力将会越来越强。目前,开源领域的巨头Red Hat公司及Novell公司都已开始将该技术整合进入他们于Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5系统及Novell、SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 10系统。
VMware is still the leader in the field of virtual technology, the maturity of products than XenSource or company has a very distinct advantage. But very many according to the insiders, as open source, Xen strength will be stronger and stronger. At present, the giant Red Hat company and Novell company open fields have begun to integrate the technology into their Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 system and Novell, SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 system.

虚拟化技术是企业IT基础设施建设和管理上的一个重大进步,虚拟化技术降低了IT基础结构总成本,并为企业IT用户提供了更好的服务水平,显著提高了IT资源灵活性且极大地降低了IT基础设施的复杂性。
Virtualization technology is a significant progress in enterprise IT infrastructure construction and management, virtualization technology to reduce the total cost of the IT infrastructure, and provide better service for the enterprise user level IT, significantly increased IT flexibility and greatly reduces the complexity of IT infrastructure.

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